News / Aktuelles

 

13.12.2016: Marc Luy receives ERC Consolidator Grant / Marc Luy erhält ERC Consolidator Grant

 

Marc Luy has been awarded with an ERC Consolidator Grant for the project "Levels and Trends of Health Expectancy: Understanding its Measurement and Estimation Sensitivity". The 5-years project will start in 2017 and is already Luy’s second ERC Grant. In 2010 he received an ERC Starting Grant to study the “male-female health-mortality paradox”.

 

Marc Luy wurde vom Europäischen Forschungsrat mit einem ERC Consolidator Grant ausgezeichnet für das Projekt "Levels and Trends of Health Expectancy: Understanding its Measurement and Estimation Sensitivity". Das 5-Jahres-Projekt wird 2017 beginnen. Es ist bereits Luys zweiter ERC Grant. Im Jahr 2010 erhielt er einen ERC Starting Grant zur Erforschung des “Male-Female Health-Mortality Paradox”.

 

 

05.12.2016: Presentation at the VID December Conference on Variations on the themes of Wolfgang Lutz” / Präsentation bei der Dezember-Konferenz des VID zum Thema “Variations on the themes of Wolfgang Lutz” (Vienna, Austria, 05-07 December 2016)

 

Luy, Marc; Zannella, Marina; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Sugawara, Yuka; Lutz, Wolfgang; Caselli, Graziella: How human capital drives life expectancy—a demographic analysis(presented by Marc Luy)

 

 

01.12.2016: Presentation at the 10th CCIV Symposium Integrated Care „Die Kunst des guten Alterns“ in Vienna / Präsentation 10. CCIV Symposium Integrierte Versorgung „Die Kunst des guten Alterns“ in Wien

 

Luy, Marc: Determinanten von Gesundheit und Langlebigkeit [Determinants of health and longevity])

 

 

01.10.2016: New research project / Neues Forschungsprojekt

 

Today started our new research project “Ora et Labora”, financially supported by the City of Vienna for the duration of 12 months. It is part of the Cloister Study sub-project AGAS (Ageing in an Aged Society) and investigates the effects of a longer working life time on health and life quality of order members (see Projects).

 

Heute startete unser neues Forschungsprojekt “Ora et Labora”, das für die Dauer von 12 Monaten von der Stadt Wien finanziell unterstützt wird. Es ist Teil des Klosterstudien-Teilprojekts AGAS (Ageing in an Aged Society) und untersucht die Auswirkungen des über das klassische Pensionsalter hinausgehende Arbeitsleben der Ordensleute auf deren Gesundheit und Lebensqualität (siehe Projekte).

 

 

01.10.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc, 2017: “Potenzial der zukünftigen Entwicklung der Lebenserwartung” [Potentials for future trends of life expectancy], in: Mayer, T. (ed.): Die transformative Macht der Demografie, Wiesbaden, Springer Fachmedien: 157-172.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: The paper investigates by simple model simulations whether an increase of life expectancy to 100 years—as postulated in the “Oeppen-Vaupel-Hypothesis—is theoretically possible and how the corresponding life table might look like. We find that in view of the factual mortality reductions from 1950 to 2000 such a development cannot be excluded. Consequently, population projections with the aim to assess future demographic changes should include such a scenario for future trends in life expectancy.

 

In diesem Beitrag wird auf anschauliche Weise und anhand einfacher Modellrechnungen untersucht, ob ein Anstieg der durchschnittlichen Lebenserwartung bei Geburt auf 100 Jahre bis zur Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts – wie in der „Oeppen-Vaupel-Hypothese“ postuliert – theoretisch möglich ist und wie eine zu diesem Wert führende Sterbetafel aussehen müsste. Vor dem Hintergrund der erfolgten Sterblichkeitsreduktionen zwischen 1950 und 2000 lässt sich eine derartige Entwicklung bis zum Jahr 2050 tatsächlich nicht ausschließen. Folglich sollte man diese Perspektive der Entwicklung der Lebenserwartung bei Bevölkerungsprognosen mit dem Ziel, die zukünftigen demografischen Veränderungen abzuschätzen, durchaus mitberücksichtigen.

 

 

01.-03.09.2016: Presentations at EPC 2016 / Vorträge bei der EPC 2016

 

The Research Group “Health and Longevity” of the Vienna Institute of Demography is involved in seven oral and poster presentations at the 2016 European Population Conference, taking place in Mainz, Germany on 31 August - 03 September (see Conference Website):

 

     (1) Luy, Marc; Zannella, Marina; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Sugawara, Yuka; Lutz, Wolfgang; Caselli, Graziella: Increasing Human Capital fuels increasing Life Expectancy and Optimism for the Future (Thursday, September 01, Session 2, presented by Marc Luy)

     (2) Di Giulio, Paola; Reynaud, Cecilia; Philipov, Dimiter: Family consequences of children disability (Friday, September 02, Poster Session 1, presented by Dimiter Philipov)

     (3) Köppen, Bernhard; Luy, Marc: The “First” Demographic Transition: Refurbishment and Revision of a Classical Model in Search of Main Drivers of the Process (Friday, September 02, Session 65, presented by Bernhard Köppen)

     (4) Philipov, Dimiter; Goujon, Anne; Di Giulio, Paola: The dynamics of human capital-specific old-age dependency ratio in Europe (Friday, September 02, Session 75, presented by Dimiter Philipov)

     (5) Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc: From Survey Data with Mortality Follow-up to Period Life Expectancy: The Longitudinal Survival Method (Friday, September 02, Session 86, presented by Marc Luy)

     (6) Bowen, Catherine E.; Luy, Marc: Community Social Characteristics and Health at Older Ages: Evidence from 156 Religious Communities (Friday, September 02, Session 89, presented by Marc Luy)

     (7) Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc: The influence of early life socioeconomic factors and health status on disease risk and morbidity in adulthood: findings from the Cloister Study (Saturday, September 03, Session 108, presented by Angela Wiedemann)

 

Die Forschungsgruppe “Gesundheit und Langlebigkeit” des Vienna Institute of Demography ist an oben stehenden sieben Vorträgen und Poster-Präsentationen bei der 2016 European Population Conference beteiligt, die vom 31. August bis 03. September in Mainz (Deutschland) stattfindet (siehe Konferenz-Webseite).

 

 

29.08.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Bowen, Catherine E.; Luy, Marc, 2016: “Community social characteristics and health at older ages: evidence from 156 religious communities”, The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbw114.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Previous studies have found that individuals’ health is associated with the social characteristics of their communities. However, interpreting the causality of the relationships is difficult due to a number of potential confounders on both the individual- and community-levels as well as potential selection effects. In the current article, we analyze data on health and community characteristics from Catholic order members aged 50+ living together in religious communities. We argue that the potential for confounders and selection effects is reduced in our sample. We use multilevel group actor–partner interdependence models and cross-sectional questionnaire data (N = 1,041, k = 156 communities) to test whether individuals’ self-rated health was associated with the level of social conflict and connectedness of their community separate from their own involvement in conflict and feelings of connectedness. We find that living in communities with higher levels of conflict is associated with worse health, especially at older ages. We also find that (a) the relationship between health and own feelings of connectedness is stronger for men and (b) women report better health than men in more connected communities. Our results offer further evidence that at least some social characteristics of the community have a causal impact on health.

 

 

14.07.2016: Presentation at the 3rd ISA Forum of Sociology / Präsentation beim 3. ISA-Forum of Sociology (Vienna, Austria, 10-14 July 2016)

 

Luy, Marc; Zannella, Marina; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Sugawara, Yuka; Lutz, Wolfgang; Caselli, Graziella: The effect of increasing human capital on increasing life expectancy: a demographic decomposition (presented by Marc Luy)

 

[Link to abstract]

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

05.07.2016: Presentation at the PopFest conference 2016 at the University of Manchester / Präsentation bei der PopFest Konferenz 2016 an der Universität Manchester

 

Wiedemann, Angela: Enduring influences of socio-economic circumstances in childhood on adult health: Findings from the Cloister Study

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

22.06.2016: Poster presentation at the Epidemiology Congress of the Americas / Posterpräsentation beim Epidemiology Congress of the Americas (Miami, Florida, USA, 21-24 June 2016)

 

Luy, Marc; Zannella, Marina; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Sugawara, Yuka; Lutz, Wolfgang; Caselli, Graziella: Increasing education levels fuel increasing life expectancy and optimism for the future (presented by Marc Luy)

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

21.06.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

ESHRE Capri Workshop Group (team of authors), 2016: “The influence of social factors on gender health”, Human Reproduction, doi: 10.1093/humrep/dew154.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Male births exceed female births by 5–6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05–1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25–29 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m2) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health.

 

 

14.06.2016: Lecture at the Wittgenstein Centre Summer School on “The Demography of Health and Education” / Vorlesung im Rahmen der Wittgenstein Centre Summer School on “The Demography of Health and Education”

 

Luy, Marc: Alternative and new methods to estimate (healthy) life expectancy for subpopulations

 

[Link to lecture slides]

 

[Link to website of the summer school]

 

 

08.-10.06.2016: Presentations at REVES 2016 / Vorträge bei der REVES 2016

 

The Research Group “Health and Longevity” of the Vienna Institute of Demography is organizing the 27th REVES Meeting “Determinants of Unusual and Differential Health Expectancy”, taking place in Vienna on 8-10 June (see Conference Website). Our research team will contribute with three presentations:

 

     (1) Luy, Marc; Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Di Giulio, Paola: Relationships between health and longevity in a cross-sectional context: findings from the HEMOX project  (Wednesday, June 08, presented by Marc Luy)

     (2) Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc: Using the Longitudinal Survival Method to estimate healthy life expectancy by education in Germany (Thursday, June 09, presented by Christian Wegner-Siegmundt)

     (3) Luy, Marc; Zannella, Marina; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Sugawara, Yuka; Lutz, Wolfgang; Caselli, Graziella: How increasing education levels drive rising life expectancy (Friday, June 10, presented by Marc Luy)

 

Die Forschungsgruppe “Gesundheit und Langlebigkeit” des Vienna Institute of Demography organisiert das 27. REVES Meeting “Determinants of Unusual and Differential Health Expectancy”, das vom 08. bis 10. Juni in Wien stattfindet (siehe Konferenz-Webseite). Unser Forscherteam wird mit den drei oben stehenden Vorträgen beitragen.

 

 

19.05.2016: Marc Luy elected Corresponding Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences / Marc Luy zum korrespondierenden Mitglied der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften gewählt

 

The Austrian Academy of Sciences elected Dr. Marc Luy in its election session on 15 April 2016 as Corresponding Member into the Division of Humanities and the Social Sciences. The certificate was handed over today in the annual ceremony.

 

Die Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften hat in ihrer Wahlsitzung am 15. April 2016 Dr. Marc Luy zum korrespondierenden Mitglied der philosophisch-historischen Klasse im Inland gewählt. Heute fand die Übergabe der Urkunde im Rahmen einer Festveranstaltung statt.

 

 

05.05.2016: Presentation at the Seminar of the Centre for Population Change (CPC) at the University of Southampton / Präsentation beim Forschungsseminar des Centre for Population Change (CPC) an der Universität Southampton

 

Luy, Marc: How paradoxical is the gender-and-health-paradox?

 

[Link to announcement and abstract]

 

 

01.04.2016: Presentations at PAA 2016 / Vorträge bei der PAA 2016 (Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., USA, 31 March - 2 April 2016)

 

Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian: The Longitudinal Survival Method for the Estimation of Life Expectancy from Survey Data with Mortality Follow-up (presented by Marc Luy)

[Session 123]

 

Luy, Marc; Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Di Giulio, Paola: Testing the Gender and Health Paradox: Insights from a Natural Experiment (presented by Marc Luy)

[Session 160]

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

09./10.03.2016: Presentations at DGD 2016 / Vorträge bei der DGD 2016 (Annual Conference of the German Demographic Association DGD, Leipzig, Germany, 9-11 March 2016)

 

Luy, Marc; Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian: Ursachen und Trends der Geschlechterdifferenz in der Lebenserwartung in Deutschland [Causes and trends of the gender difference in life expectancy in Germany] (presented by Marc Luy)

 

Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc; Wiedemann, Angela: Sozioökonomische Unterschiede in der gesunden Lebenszeit in Deutschland [Socio-economic differences in healthy life time in Germany] (presented by Christian Wegner-Siegmundt)

 

[Link to conference flyer]

 

 

24.02.2016: Presentation at the Research Seminar of the Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research (LISER) / Präsentation beim Forschungsseminar des Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research (LISER)

 

Luy, Marc: Relationships between health and longevity.

 

[Link to announcement and abstract]

 

 

18.02.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

zur Nieden, Felix; Rau, Roland; Luy, Marc, 2016: “Allgemeine Sterbetafel 2010/12–Neue Ansätze zur Glättung und Extrapolation der Sterbewahrscheinlichkeiten” [General German life table 2010/12—new approaches for smoothing and extrapolating probabilities of dying], Wirtschaft und Statistik 2016(1): 63-74.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: A life table is a demographic model which permits a general assessment of mortality-

related aspects in a population irrespective of its size and age structure. General life

tables are constructed after each population census. They are compiled and published

for the population up to the age of 100 years. This article explains the new approaches

to smoothing and extrapolating probabilities of death in official statistics which were

applied in constructing the general life table 2010/12 for Germany and its Länder.

Using these methods, basic patterns of age-specific probabilities of dying could be

derived for Germany and the Länder.

 

Eine Sterbetafel ist ein demografisches Modell, das die zusammenfassende Beurteilung der Sterblichkeitsverhältnisse einer Bevölkerung unabhängig von ihrer Größe und Altersstruktur ermöglicht. Allgemeine Sterbetafeln werden jeweils im Anschluss an eine Volkszählung erstellt und bis zu der Altersstufe von 100 Jahren veröffentlicht. Bei der Erstellung der allgemeinen Sterbetafel 2010/12 für Deutschland und die Bundesländer kamen neue Ansätze zur Glättung und zur Extrapolation der Sterbewahrscheinlichkeiten in der amtlichen Statistik zum Einsatz, die in diesem Beitrag erläutert werden. Unter Verwendung dieser Methoden ist es möglich, die den altersspezifischen Sterbewahrscheinlichkeiten in Deutschland und den Bundesländern zugrunde liegenden Muster abzuleiten.

 

 

31.01.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc, 2016: “The impact of biological factors on sex differences in life expectancy: insights from a natural experiment”, in: Dinges M.; Weigl A. (eds.): Gender-specific life Expectancy in Europe 1850–2010, Stuttgart, Steiner: 17-46.

[Link to Book]

 

Abstract: There is consensus that biological factors—defined as those components of mortality that are neither due to individual behaviours nor to social or environmental influences—have been responsible for only a minor fraction of the sex gap in life expectancy in the post-war populations of developed countries. However, it is difficult to quantify the exact degree of their influence, because it is impossible to carry out pertinent experiments in human beings and research is therefore limited to what can be observed. Consequently, only a few attempts to quantify the impact of biological factors exist which are based on different theoretical considerations and estimation strategies. Nonetheless, they all agree on the modest size of the naturally caused sex gap with only minor deviations in the estimated extent (1-2 years or about 25% of life expectancy). We assessed the impact of biological factors on sex differences in life expectancy on the basis of the life data of female and male Catholic order members from Germany and Austria for the years 1960-1970. Although it is known that cloistered life entails specific risk factors which influence women’s and men’s mortality differently, it seems that nuns and monks living in these years are an almost ideal experimental setting for this research question. Moreover, the data permit estimates of the naturally caused differences as a function of the overall sex gap in life expectancy. As biological factors interact with non-biological drivers of mortality—including developments in medical technology and treatments—it seems plausible to assume that their contribution is not stable but rather varies with the respective social and disease environments. Our data suggest a logarithmic relationship between the impact of biological factors (estimated on the basis the difference in life expectancy between nuns and monks) and the extent of the sex differences in life expectancy (indicated by the respective values for the total population) which leads to an estimated impact of biological factors between 0.8 and 1.6 years in life expectancy at birth. Thus, for sex differences in life expectancy up to 6 years these estimates are very similar to the commonly assumed 25%-difference. However, the derived logarithmic function yields lower estimates for the biological impact in populations with higher sex differences as they are found in Russia and other Eastern European countries.

 

 

15.01.2016: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc, 2016: “Demographische Kennziffern und Methoden“ [Demographic indicators and methods], in Niephaus, Y.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Sackmann, R. (eds.): Handbuch Bevölkerungssoziologie, Wiesbaden, Springer Fachmedien: 121-152.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Der Beitrag beschreibt die Grundlagen demographischer Methoden, auf denen die wichtigsten Kennziffern zur Charakterisierung der eine Bevölkerung strukturierenden Prozesse (Fertilität, Nuptialität, Morbidität, Mortalität und Migration) basieren und deren Kenntnis für ihre richtige Interpretation erforderlich ist. Dies beinhaltet die zentralen demographischen Konzepte der Ereignisrate, der Sterbetafel und ihrer Erweiterung zur Mehrzustandstafel, des stabilen Bevölkerungsmodells, der Perioden- und Kohorten-Analyse sowie der indirekten Schätzverfahren, die zur Gewinnung demographischer Kennziffern in Entwicklungsländern verwendet werden.

 

 

14.12.2015: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Wiedemann, Angela; Spijker, Jeroen, 2015: “Life expectancy by education, income and occupation in Germany: Estimations using the Longitudinal Survival Method”, Comparative Population Studies 40(4): 399-436.

[Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Reliable estimates for differences in life expectancy (LE) by socio-economic position (SEP), that can be assessed in an international context and are comprehensive in terms of considering different SEP dimensions, are missing for the German population so far. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by providing estimates for differences in LE by education, household income, work status and vocational class. The lack of national mortality data by SEP required an innovative methodological approach to estimate LE from survey data with a mortality follow-up. The main strengths of the method are the low demand on the data, its simple applicability and the estimation of a set of age-specific probabilities of dying. We employed the method to the German Life Expectancy Survey and estimated period life tables for 45 male and 32 female SEP subpopulations. The results show striking differences in LE across all analysed SEP indicators. Among men, LE at age 40 ranges by more than five years between the lowest and highest household income quartiles, more than six years between individuals with low and high education, around ten years across the work status groups, and almost 15 years across the vocational classes. The proportion of those who reach the classic pension age of 65 years also varies considerably, as does the remaining LE at this age. The corresponding differences among women are smaller, yet still notable. The results yield an interesting finding for the ongoing discussion about the various consequences of an increased pension age. Moreover, they provide policy-makers, doctors, researchers and public health workers with a concrete picture of Germany’s most disadvantaged SEP subpopulations and the extent of their disadvantage in terms of longevity and mortality.

 

 

12.12.2015: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc, 2015: “Ursachen und Trends der Geschlechterdifferenz in der Lebenserwartung in Deutschland” [Causes and trends of the gender difference in life expectancy in Germany], Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin 91(12): 494-498. [Link to Article]

 

Abstract: This article discusses the status quo of research on gender differences in mortality in Germany from a social science perspective. In Germany men currently live on average about five years less than women. In the early 1990s, the difference in life expectancy at birth between women and men was 6.6 years. Since then, a steady decline in this gender gap has been observed. This trend is likely to continue in the near future. The excess mortality of men is caused by biological as well as social, behavioural and environmental factors. Currently, the majority of the mortality difference between women and men in Germany can be attributed to non-biological factors and therefore is associated with directly or indirectly modifiable factors. Among these, tobacco consumption has been identified as a particularly relevant determinant of sex differences in mortality. Although research has established some of the factors underlying male excess mortality, the phenomenon of why men live shorter than women has not yet been fully explained.

 

 

01.12.2015: Presentation at the ÖPIA event “Ageing and life course—an interdisciplinary lecture series” / Präsentation bei der ÖPIA-Veranstaltung "Altern und Lebenslauf—Eine  interdisziplinäre Ringvorlesung” (Universität Wien)

 

Luy, Marc: Folgen und Potenziale des Alterns in einer alternden Gesellschaft: Erkenntnisse aus der Deutsch-Österreichischen Klosterstudie [Consequences and potentials of ageing in an ageing society: insights from the German-Austrian Cloister Study].

 

[Link to the programme of the ÖPIA Lecture Series]

 

 

01.12.2015: Presentation at the 3rd GGP (Generations and Gender Program) User Conference / Präsentation bei der 3. GGP Nutzer-Konferenz (Vienna, Austria, 30 November-01 December 2015)

 

Di Giulio, Paola; Jaschinski, Ina; Philipov, Dimiter; Reynaud, Cecilia:

Families with disabled children in different European countries (presented by Paola Di Giulio).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

19.11.2015: Presentation at GSA 2015 / Präsentation bei der GSA 2015 (68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Orlando, Florida, USA, 18-22 November 2015)

 

Bowen, Catherine E.; Luy, Marc: Older people’s health related to emotions of household members (presented by Marc Luy).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

13.11.2015: Presentation at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the German Menopause Association / Präsentation bei der 2015 Jahrestagung der Deutschen Menopause Gesellschaft (Frankfurt/Main, 13.-14.11.2015)

 

Luy, Marc: Determinanten von Gesundheit und Langlebigkeit—Erkenntnisse aus der Klosterstudie [Determinants of health and longevity—insights from the Cloister Study].

 

 

29.10.2015: Presentations at the 2015 DACH Meeting (German-Austrian-Swiss Demographers’ Meeting, Munich, Germany, 28-30 October 2015) / Vorträge beim 2015 DACH-Treffen (Deutsch-Österreichisch-Schweizerisches Demografen-Treffen, München, Deutschland, 28.-30. Oktober 2015)

 

     (1) Luy, Marc: Geschlechterdifferenzen in der Lebenserwartung in Europa: Entwicklungen, Ursachen und räumliche Disparitäten [Gender differences in life expectancy in Europe: trends, causes and geographical disparities].

     (2) Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian: Sozioökonomische Unterschiede in der gesunden Lebenszeit in Deutschland [Socioeconomic differences in healthy life expectancy in Germany].

     (3) Wiedemann, Angela: Längeres Leben = mehr gesunde Lebenszeit? Erkenntnisse aus der Deutsch-Österreichischen Klosterstudie [Longer life = more healthy life time? Insights from the German-Austrian Cloister Study].

 

 

06.10.2015: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Peters, Frederik; Nusselder, Wilma; Reibling, Nadine; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Mackenbach, Johan, 2015: “Quantifying the contribution of changes in healthcare expenditures and smoking to the reversal of the trend in life expectancy in the Netherlands”, BMC Public Health 15: 1024. [Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Since 2001 the Netherlands has shown a sharp upturn in life expectancy (LE) after a longer period of slower improvement. This study assessed whether changes in healthcare expenditure (HCE) explain this reversal in trends in LE. As an alternative explanation, the impact of changes in smoking behaviour was also evaluated. To quantify the contribution of changes in HCE to changes in LE, we estimated a health-production function using a dynamic panel regression approach with data on 19 OECD countries (1980-2009), accounting for temporal and spatial correlation. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using the indirect Peto-Lopez method. As compared to 1990-1999, during 2000-2009 LE in the Netherlands increased by 1.8 years in females and by 1.5 years in males. Whereas changes in the impact of smoking between the two periods made almost no contribution to the acceleration of the increase in LE, changes in the trend of HCE added 0.9 years to the LE increase between 2000 and 2009. The exceptional reversal in the trend of LE and HCE was not found among the other OECD countries. This study suggests that changes in Dutch HCE, and not in smoking, made an important contribution to the reversal of the trend in LE; these findings support the view that investments in healthcare are increasingly important for further progress in LE.

 

 

19.09.2015: DGGG-Best Paper Award for Catherine E. Bowen

 

Dr. Catherine Bowen received the “Best Paper Award for Excellent Publications from Early-Career Researchers” from Section III for Social and Behavioural Sciences in Gerontology of the German Society for Gerontology and Geriatrics (DGGG). The prize was awarded in a ceremony at the DGGG conference which took place in Mannheim, Germany on September 17 and 18 during which Dr. Bowen had the opportunity to present the paper (see below). Congratulations!!!

 

Bowen, Catherine E.; Skirbekk, Vegard, 2013: “National stereotypes of older people’s competence are related to older adults’ participation in paid and volunteer work”, Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 68(6): 974–983

[Link to Article]

 

Dr. Catherine Bowen erhielt den “Best Paper Award for Excellent Publications from Early-Career Researchers” der Sektion III für Sozial- und Verhaltenswissenschaftliche Gerontologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Gerontologie und Geriatrie (DGGG). Die Preisverleihungs erfolgte bei der DGGG-Konferenz in Mannheim am 17. und 18. September, während der Dr. Bowen die Arbeit (siehe obigen Link) auch präsentieren konnte. Herzlichen Glückwunsch!!!

 

 

25.08.2015: Presentations at the 2015 ESHRE Capri Workshop / Vorträge beim 2015 ESHRE Capri Workshop (Capri Workshop of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Epidemiology on “Gender related health: biological mechanisms and lifestyle factors”, Anacapri, Italy, 28./29.08.2015)

 

Luy, Marc: The impact of biological factors on gender differences in life expectancy: results from a natural experiment. (28.08.2015)

 

Luy, Marc: Trends and causes of gender differences in life expectancy: a demographic analysis. (29.08.2015)

 

 

01.06.2015: Presentation at REVES 2015 / Präsentation bei der REVES 2015 (XXVII Meeting of the International Network on Health Expectancy and the Disability Process, Singapore, 2-4 June 2015)

 

Luy, Marc; Bowen, Catherine E.; Di Giulio, Paola; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Wiedemann, Angela: The relationships between longevity and different dimensions of health: findings from the Cloister Study (presented by Marc Luy).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

25.04.2015: Poster presentation at PAA 2015 / Posterpräsentation bei der PAA 2015 (Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, San Diego, USA, 30 April - 2 May 2015)

 

Luy, Marc; Bowen, Catherine E.; Di Giulio, Paola; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Wiedemann, Angela: The relationships between longevity and different dimensions of health: findings from the Cloister Study (presented by Angela Wiedemann).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

20.04.2015: Presentation at the Colloquium of the Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland, 27.04.2015 / Vortrag beim Kolloquium des Instituts für Statistik und Demographie, Warschau School of Economics, 27.04.2015

 

Luy, Marc: Gender differences in life expectancy: causes and trends.

 

 

15.04.2015: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc, 2015: “Adult mortality in industrialized societies”, in: Wright, James D. (ed.): International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), Vol. 1, Oxford, Elsevier: 170-180. [Link to Article]

 

Abstract: Adult morality in today’s industrialized societies is characterized by steady increases of life expectancy with a tendency towards convergence of mortality levels. Exceptions are countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the Arabian Peninsula. The populations differ more in the causes of death than in the age pattern of mortality changes during the last decades. Women outlive men in all populations. However, differences exist in the time pattern of the sex gap. In general, levels and trends of mortality and sex differences as well as the prevailing driving factors reflect to a large extent the development stages of the populations.

 

 

01.03.2015: Presentation at DGD 2015 / Vortrag bei der DGD 2015 (Annual Conference of the German Demographic Association DGD, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 March 2015)

 

Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Wiedemann, Angela: Bildungsunterschiede in der gesunden Lebenszeit in Deutschland [Education-specific differences in healthy life time in Germany] (presented by Marc Luy).

 

[Link to conference flyer]

 

 

17.12.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc; Minagawa, Yuka, 2014: “Gender gaps–Life expectancy and proportion of life in poor health”, Health Reports 25(12): 12-19. [Link to article]

 

Abstract: The literature suggests that women report worse health but live longer than men—a phenomenon known as the gender paradox in health and mortality. Although studies examining the paradox abound, relatively little is known about mechanisms underlying the gap. With data on healthy life expectancy from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, this article analyses the relationship between length of life and health among men and women in 45 more-developed countries. The proportion of life spent in poor health is used as an indicator of health. This approach accounts for gender differences in longevity and illustrates the female health disadvantage pattern more clearly. We find that life expectancy at birth and the proportion of life in poor health are closely related for both genders. Furthermore, the larger the female excess in longevity, the larger the female excess in the proportion of life in poor health. Thus, by focusing on the proportion of life in poor health, this analysis suggests that women’s longevity advantage translates into a health disadvantages relative to men. The results indicate that women suffer from poor health not in spite of living longer, but because they live longer.

 

 

10.12.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian, 2014: “The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated”, European Journal of Public Health, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku211. [Link to article]

 

Abstract: Throughout industrialized countries, tobacco consumption is seen as the predominant driver of both the trend and the extent of gender differences in life expectancy. However, several factors raise doubts to this generalization. We hypothesize that the impact of smoking on the gender gap is context-specific and differs between populations. We decompose the gender differences in life expectancy into fractions caused by smoking and other non-biological factors for 53 industrialized countries and the period 1955–2009 to assess the significance of smoking among the causes that can be influenced by direct or indirect interference. We find that the trend of the gender gap can indeed be attributed to smoking in most populations of the western world. However, with regard to the overall extent of male excess mortality, smoking is the main driver only in the minority of the studied populations. While the impact of smoking to gender differences in life expectancy declines in all populations, the contribution of other non-biological factors is in most cases higher at the end than at the beginning of the observation period. Thus, over-generalized statements suggesting that smoking is the main driver of the gender gap in all populations can be misleading. The results of this study demonstrate that—regardless of the prevailing effect of smoking—many populations have still remarkable potentials to further narrow their gender gaps in life expectancy. Although measures to further reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption must be continued, more attention should be directed to the growing importance of other non-biological factors.

 

 

01.11.2014: Poster presentation at GSA 2014 / Posterpräsentation bei der GSA 2014 (The Gerontological Society of America's 67th Annual Scientific Meeting, Washington, DC, USA, 5-9 November 2014)

 

Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Di Giulio, Paola: The association between education and mortality in a sample of 3,060 Catholic monks from Germany (presented by Marc Luy).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

01.08.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Caselli, Graziella; Drefahl, Sven; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Luy, Marc, 2014: Future mortality in low mortality countries, in: Lutz, W.; Butz, W. P.; KC, S. (eds.): World population and human capital in the 21st century, Oxford, Oxford University Press: 226-272.

[Link to book]

 

Abstract: The chapter provides an overview of past and expected future trends in life expectancy in populations of today’s low mortality countries. Because these populations previously experienced strong decreases in infant mortality, the future mortality trends will be driven mainly by mortality among the old and oldest-old. The chapter gathers empirical background data and theoretical considerations about past and likely future determinants of mortality including smoking, obesity, biomedical progress, environmental changes and socioeconomic conditions. Based on this knowledge an internet expert survey and a meta-experts meeting were carried out to formulate expert-based assumptions for future trends in life expectancy. The presented evidence and the experts’ assessments indicate that that the positive influences on human mortality and life expectancy will likely outweigh the negative risk factors and lead to further increases of life expectancy. Moreover, the chapter concludes that the differences between countries are likely to narrow further in the future.

 

 

20.06.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Wiedemann, Angela; Marcher, Anja; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Di Giulio, Paola; Luy, Marc, 2014: Der Gesundheits-Survey der Klosterstudie. Daten- und Methodenbericht zu Welle 1 [The health survey of the Cloister Study. Data and methods report for wave 1], VID Forschungsbericht Nr. 37, Wien, Institut für Demographie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

 

This book (in German language) includes the data and methods report for the first wave of the Health Survey of the Cloister Study. It contains a brief history of the whole project and detailed information about the health survey’s participants, the questionnaire, and summary tables (frequencies) of all variables. The book comprises 328 questions and can be downloaded at:

 

http://www.oeaw.ac.at/vid/download/FB37.pdf

 

Das Buch beinhaltet den Daten- und Methodenbericht zur ersten Welle des Gesundheits-Surveys der Klosterstudie. Es enthält eine kurze Geschichte des gesamten Projekts und detaillierte Informationen über die Studienteilnehmer, den Fragebogen sowie Häufigkeitstabellen für alle erfassten Variablen. Das Buch umfasst 328 Seiten und kann über oben stehenden Link heruntergeladen werden.

 

 

15.06.2014: Presentations at EPC 2014 / Vorträge bei der EPC 2014 (2014 European Population Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 25-28 June 2014)

 

Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Ploubidis, George; Luy, Marc: Determinants of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in individuals with eastern and western European background (presented by Christian Wegner-Siegmundt).

 

Wiedemann, Angela; Wegner-Siegmundt, Christian; Di Giulio, Paola; Luy, Marc: Towards a better understanding of the “male-female health-mortality paradox”. First results of the Health Survey of the German-Austrian Cloister Study (presented by Marc Luy).

 

[Link to conference website]

 

 

01.05.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc; Caselli, Graziella; Butz, William (eds.), 2013: Determinants of unusual and differential longevity, Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vol. 11

 

The 2013 issue of the Vienna Yearbook of Population Research contains an introduction and 14 chapters which tackle several aspects of human longevity from the demographic perspective. The articles are grouped into four sections: ‘methodological issues for studying longevity and mortality’, ‘longevity islands’, ‘longevity and mortality of specific risk groups’ and ‘survival to old and oldest-old age: familial and socio-demographic determinants’. The chapters can be downloaded at:

 

http://www.oeaw.ac.at/vid/publications/VYPR2013/VYPR2013.shtml

 

Das Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2013 beinhaltet eine Einleitung und 14 Kapitel, die verschiedene Aspekte der menschlichen Langlebigkeit aus der demographischen Perspektive beleuchten. Die Beiträge sind in vier inhaltliche Abschnitte unterteilt: ‘Methodische Aspekte der Erforschung von Langlebigkeit und Mortalität’, ‘Inseln der Langlebigkeit’, ‘Langlebigkeit und Mortalität spezifischer Risikogruppen’ und ‘Überleben bis ins hohe und höchste Alter: familiale und sozioökonomische Determinanten’. The Aufsätze können über oben stehenden Link heruntergeladen werden.

 

 

01.04.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Anson, Jon; Luy, Marc (eds.), 2014: Mortality in an international perspective, Dordrecht et al.: Springer. [Link to book]

 

This volume presents in 13 chapters a state of the art coverage of the measurement and evolution of mortality over time. It describes in great detail the changes in the cause patterns of mortality, the changes in mortality patterns at different ages, and specific analyses of mortality in particular countries. Derived from a meeting of the European Working Group on Health, Morbidity and Mortality held at the Vienna Institute of Demography, September 2011, it presents a cross-section of the work and concerns of mortality researchers across Europe, ranging from London and Madrid in the west to Moscow in the east, with a few additions from further afield. Although most of the papers focus on a particular population, the range of the papers is broad; taken together they present an inter-disciplinary cross-section of this multi-faceted field. Coverage includes estimating life expectancy in small areas, with an application to recent changes in US counties; socioeconomic determinants of mortality in Europe using the latest available data and short-term forecasts; predicting mortality from profiles of biological risk and performance measures of functioning; infant mortality measurement and rate of progress on international commitment using evidence from Argentina; avoidable factors contributing to maternal deaths in Turkey; changes in mortality at older ages: the case of Spain (1975- 2006); variable scales of avoidable mortality within the Russian population; long-term mortality decline in East Asia, and much more. Perspectives in Mortality Research will serve as a valuable resource for professionals and students in sociology, demography, public health and personal finance.

 

 

15.02.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc; Gast, Katrin, 2014: “Do women live longer or do men die earlier? Reflections on the causes of sex differences in life expectancy”, Gerontology 60(2): 143-153

[Link to article]

 

Abstract: Although many different factors have been identified to contribute to excess male mortality, it is still unclear which path of the complex cause-effect chain is the decisive driver of the life expectancy gap between women and men. The question behind this study is whether these sex differences are caused primarily by factors leading to low female mortality or rather by factors causing high male mortality. We hypothesise that they are to a large extent caused by specific subpopulations of men with particularly high mortality levels that decrease the average life expectancy of men. To test this hypothesis, we investigate in a meta-analysis the variability in mortality (VM) in women and men - defined as the range of death rates prevailing among subpopulations - in empirical studies analysing specific phenomena of mortality differentials. We used the data of 72 empirical studies, including 146 total effects (TE) and 1,718 single effects (SE) for 21 different risk factors. In 85% of TE and three quarters of SE the VM was higher in men than in women, taking into account men's higher overall mortality. The corresponding figures for the direct differences in the VM between women and men are 92 and 82%, respectively. Cases with higher female VM are rare exceptions and appear in particular in the highest age groups. In conclusion, we find support for our hypothesis that the disproportionate high mortality levels of specific male subpopulations are the central cause of the current extent of sex differences in life expectancy. Thus, public health programmes should be targeted toward these disadvantaged subpopulations among men which seem to be related primarily to socioeconomic characteristics.

 

 

30.01.2014: New publication / Neue Publikation

 

Luy, Marc, 2014: “Is ‘Oranje’ a health risk for Dutch retirees?”, in van Dalen, H.; Esveldt, I. (eds.): Nico van Nimwegen: the resourceful demographer, The Hague, NIDI: 57-63.

[Link to article]

 

Abstract: The aim of this contribution is analyse mortality in the Netherlands in relation to the eliminations of the Dutch national football team from the World Cups and European Championships since 1996. I used mortality data from Statistics Netherlands comprising the age- and sex-specific number of deaths by day for the periods of major football events since 1996. These include the FIFA World Cups in 1998, 2006, and 2010 and the UEFA European Championships in 2000, 2004, and 2008. I analysed all-cause mortality of women and men for the age groups 45-64, 65-79, 45+, 65+ and 80+ during the 11-day periods around the days at which the Dutch team was eliminated. In addition, I compared the data with those from the corresponding periods in the years before and after the six included football tournaments. The results of the study do not indicate that supporting the Dutch national football team is a notable health risk for men in the Netherlands. Even the probably most stressful events for Dutch football fans—i.e. the defeats in the semi-final of the European Championship 2000 at home and in the final of the 2010 World Cup—did not increase male mortality from all causes in the Netherlands. Furthermore, I could not detect any specific effect for defeats in the regular time of the game, in extra time or in penalty shootouts. Also the round of the tournament in which the elimination occurred seems to have no influence on all-cause mortality. It seems that watching the games of the national football team is rather a riskless activity for Dutch retirees.

 

 

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 Determinants of Longevity and Ageing in Good Health (DELAG)

 

  Austrian Academy of Sciences—Vienna Institute of Demography—Research Group Health and Longevity